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Archive for November, 2010

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The battle for Cawnpore ends

Posted in Anniversary, Famous battles, History on Thursday, 25 November 2010

picture, Battle of Cawnpore, siege, Britain, British, India, Indian

British casualties were high at the battle of Cawnpore. Illustration by C. L. Doughty

6 December marks the anniversary of the end of the battle for Cawnpore fought during the Indian Rebellion of 1857. It was, in fact, the second major conflict surrounding the city that year: in June/July the city had fallen into the hands of rebels under Nana Sahib, only to be recaptured by the forces of the British East India Company under General Henry Havelock, who then made a failed attempt to relieve Lucknow, entering the city but finding himself besieged.

In November, troops led by Tantya Tope, Nana’s lieutenant, gathered nearby in an attempt to recaptured Cawnpore. Campbell and Brigadier ‘Redan’ Windham returned to Cawnpore and mounted an attack on 5/6 December which drove the rebels from the city.

Many more pictures relating to the history and culture of India can be found at the Look and Learn picture library.

An end to slavery in the USA

Posted in Anniversary, History, Law on Thursday, 25 November 2010

picture, slaves, slavery, Deep South, America

A slave revolt in Southern USA is brutally put down. Illustration by Clive Uptton

6 December marks the anniversary of the slavery in the USA in 1865. The Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution officially abolished slavery and involuntary servitude except as a punishment for a crime. It was passed by the Senate on 8 April 1864, passed by the House on 31 January 1865 and was adopted on 6 December.

Many more pictures relating to slavery throughout history can be found at the Look and Learn picture library.

The California gold rush

Posted in Anniversary, Geography, Travel on Wednesday, 24 November 2010

picture, gold rush, California, prospector

A prospector rushes into the village of San Francisco with the news of gold. Illustration by Roger Payne

On 5 December 1848, American President James K. Polk confirmed in a message to the U.S. Congress that gold had been found in California. Gold had been discovered the previous January but the bulk of those seeking gold arrived after Polk’s announcement. 90,000 ‘forty-niners’ (after 1849) rushed to California. Ships arriving at San Francisco Harbor were often abandoned by their crews and it is estimated that, by 1855, over 300,000 people had immigrated to California, many from abroad.

By then ‘panning’ in rivers was unlikely to result in riches and the money was made by groups who combined forces to create gold mining companies to engage in hydraulic mining, dredging and ‘hard-rock’ mining.

Many more pictures relating to the history of the United States of America can be found at the Look and Learn picture library.

Birth of Admiral Jellicoe

Posted in Anniversary, Famous battles, World War 1 on Wednesday, 24 November 2010

picture, Battle of Jutland, Admiral John Jellicoe

Admiral Jellicoe (bottom right), commandor of the British fleet during the Battle of Jutland (top)

5 December marks the anniversary of the birth of Admiral John Rushworth Jellicoe in 1859. Born to a seafaring family, Jellicoe rose through the ranks of the Royal Navy from cadet in 1872 to commander in 1891 and rear-admiral in 1907. He was promoted to Admiral and put in command of the British Grand Fleet in 1914. His leadership during the Battle of Jutland has been criticised although his lack of a decisive victory was down to caution rather than bad decision-making. The German Battle Fleet was heavily damaged during the clash in 1916 but the public felt disappointment that it was not destroyed completely.

Jellicoe was later made Admiral of the Fleet and became Earl Jellicoe in 1925. He died in 1935.

More pictures relating to the Battle of Jutland can be found here. Many more illustrations relating to the history of World War I can be found at the Look and Learn picture library.

The first Thanksgiving

Posted in Anniversary, History, Religion on Tuesday, 23 November 2010

picture, Thanksgiving, Virginia, Berkeley Hundred

The new arrivals in Virginia gave thanks to God, beginning a tradition still celebrated today. Illustration by Ken Petts

4 December marks the anniversary of the first Thanksgiving, a tradition still observed in the USA. In 1619, 38 English settlers arrived at Berkeley Hundred, 8,000 acres of land on the banks of the James River, about 20 miles from the first permanent settlement established by the Pilgrim Fathers in Virginia.

A service was given on their arrival by Captain John Woodleaf and it was written into the group’s charter that they should observe the day of their arrival yearly as “a day of thanksgiving” to God.

Many more pictures relating to the culture and history of America can be found at the Look and Learn picture library.

The only British Pope

Posted in Anniversary, History, Religion on Tuesday, 23 November 2010

picture, Pope Adrian IV, Hadrian IV, Hadrianus 4

A portrait of Pope Adrian IV, the former Nick Breakspear

4 December marks the anniversary of the only British Pope, elected in 1154. Nicholas Breakspear is believed to have been born at Breakspear Farm in Abbots Langley, Hertfordshire, and was educated at Abbey School, St Albans where His father became a monk. Young Nicholas was told to continue with his schooling and went to France where he he joined the St Rufus monastery near Arles. He became prior and, soon after, abbot.

Complaints to Rome about his zeal as an abbot only brought him to the favourable attention of the Popes Eugene III and Anastasius IV. When the latter died in 1154, Nicholas was elected in his place, taking the name Adrian (or Hadrian) IV. He died in 1159.

Many more pictures of Popes and the Papacy can be found at the Look and Learn picture library.

First successful human heart transplant

Posted in Anniversary, Medicine on Monday, 22 November 2010

picture, heart surgery, transplant

Surgeons performing the first successful heart transplant. Illustration by Pat Nicolle

3 December marks the anniversary of the first successful heart transplant in 1967. At Groote Schuur Hospital, in Cape Town, South Africa, a team of surgeons headed by Christiaan Barnard carried out a heart transplant on 53-year-old Louis Washkansky, a diabetic who had suffered three heart attackas which led to congestive heart failure.

During the five hour operation, Washkansky was given the heart of 24-year-old Denise Darvall, who had been fatally injured in a car accident, and, although Washkansky died 18 days later of double pneumonia due to his weakened immune system, the operation itself was a success.

picture, portrait, Professor Christiaan Barnard

Professor Christiaan Barnard. Illustration by Pat Nicolle

Many more pictures relating to doctors and medicine through the ages can be found at the Look and Learn picture library.

Two Napoleons, two Empires

Posted in Anniversary, Famous battles, History on Sunday, 21 November 2010

picture, Napoleon Bonaparte, Battle of Waterloo

Napoleon Bonaparte reviews his plans ahead of the Battle of Waterloo. Illustration by Severino Baraldi

2 December marks the anniversary marks the declarations of two Empires by two Napoleons. Napoleon Bonaparte declared himself Emperor of France, saying “To be a king is to inherit old ideas and genealogy. I don’t want to descend from anyone.” The coronation took place on this day in 1804 and he ruled for ten years before being forced into exile; he briefly returned in 1815, only to be defeated at Waterloo and exiled again.

In 1851 his nephew, Louis-Napoleon Bonaparte, voted president in 1848, staged a coup d’etat and overthrew the Second Republic and, in 1852, became Napoleon III, Emperor of the French. He was deposed whilst held captive during the Franco-Prussian War in 1870, thus becoming both first president and last monarch of France.

Many more pictures relating the the Napoleon dynasty can be found at the Look and Learn picture library.

King Gillette patents the safety razor

Posted in Anniversary, Technology on Sunday, 21 November 2010

picture, King Gillette, washing, cut-throat razor

Gillette’s invention did away with the cut-throat razor. Illustration by Peter Jackson

2 December marks the anniversary of the patenting of the safety razor by King Gillette in 1901. Gillette, whose family’s fortunes had been devastated by the great Chicago fire of 1871, was working for inventor William Painter when, one morning, he found his cut-throat razor was not sharp enough to deal with his beard. Halfway through his uncomfortable experience he had a sudden idea of trapping a sliver of steel between two guards.

Gillette remains one of the world’s leading brands of safety razor. More pictures featuring razors can be  found at the Look and Learn picture library.

Signing the Antarctic Treaty

Posted in Anniversary, Geography, Law on Saturday, 20 November 2010

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Scientific experimentation in the Antarctic. Illustration by Severino Baraldi

1 December marks the anniversary of the opening of the Antarctic Treaty for signature in 1959. 12 countries originally signed this international regulatory agreement that established the area below 60 degrees latitude  as the preserve of scientific experiment and banned all military activity on the continent.

A total of 47 countries have now signed the agreement which came into effect on 23 June 1961.

Many more picture relating to the history and fauna of Antarctica can be found at the Look and Learn picture library.