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Subject: ‘Royalty’

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A great Elizabethan

Posted in Historical articles, History, Royalty, Sea, Ships on Sunday, 31 January 2016

This edited article about Sir Walter Raleigh first appeared in Look and Learn issue number 551 published on 5 August 1972.

Execution of Raleigh, picture, image, illustration

After risking his life countless times in the service of his country, Sir Walter Raleigh was executed on a charge of treason, by Oliver Frey

He was a gallant, witty, brave and light-hearted adventurer, a typical example of those members of the Devon gentry who had been engaged in maritime adventure, often of a piratical nature, ever since the reign of Henry VIII. He was tall and handsome and his name was surrounded by legends.

He had thrown his mantle on the ground to help Elizabeth I to walk dry-shod over a puddle, they said, and he had scribbled verses with a diamond on a window pane to attract her attention. There was the tale that once, while he was lying in prison under sentence of death, he had asked for one night of freedom to rescue a lady, promising to return afterwards, and actually doing so when his wish had been granted. Whether or not these stories were true, there was one thing that could not be denied.

The name of Sir Walter Raleigh was one that was known throughout the whole of the land.

Although the pampered favourite of Elizabeth, he had done much for England. He had been tireless in his efforts to create a colony in America, he had helped to prepare the English fleet which had eventually defeated the Spanish Armada, and he had fought with distinction in Ireland. He had taken part in various expeditions against the Spanish, notably at Cadiz where he had been wounded, and he had sailed at the head of an expedition to Guinea, vainly seeking the fabled El Dorado, which was supposed to be a treasure house of gold.

But all that was in the past.

Now he was considered to be nothing more than a discredited adventurer who was guilty of treason. Locked up in the Tower for this crime, he had languished there for almost thirteen years, which had given him plenty of time indeed to reflect on how he had contributed to his own downfall.

His star had begun to wane in the reign of Elizabeth, when he had married one of her maids of honour, a presumption for which he had been punished by being put in the Tower for a while before being banished to the country. His fall from grace had been greeted with delight by the whole population, for his greed, arrogance and the fact that he was a suspected atheist, had made him the most unpopular man in England.

When he had been allowed to return to court, he had immediately quarrelled with the Queen’s new favourite, the Earl of Essex. The fact that he had helped to put down the revolt that Essex had eventually led against the Queen made no difference to the feeling of the people. Essex had been their favourite, and his death under the headsman’s axe, thanks partially to Raleigh, was merely another black mark against him.

The death of Elizabeth and the accession of James I had marked the final phase of Raleigh’s downfall. He was the last of that great band of soldier-sailors who had added lustre to Elizabeth’s reign, and for that very reason James disliked him. Men like those, men who thrived on warring with Spain were not to his taste. He wanted only peace and Raleigh had been quick to show that he was utterly against this policy.

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The Princes in the Tower

Posted in Historical articles, History, Mystery, Royalty on Sunday, 31 January 2016

This edited article about the Princes in the Tower originally appeared in Look and Learn issue number 997 published on 18 April 1981.

Prince Richard leaves his mother, picture, image, illustration

Elizabeth Woodville, Edward IV’s widow, was finally persuaded to give up her younger son, Richard, to her brother-in-law, Richard of Gloucester. Picture by Clive Uptton

Few kings of England have been born in such impoverished and perilous circumstances as Edward V. His birthplace was a gloomy building called the Sanctuary, at Westminster, where his mother had sought refuge after her husband, Edward IV, had been forced to flee temporarily to Holland.

A midwife named Mother Cobb was called into the Sanctuary to attend to the birth and a doctor named Serigo helped her. The danger of the whole Sanctuary party being starved into surrender by their enemies the Lancastrians was averted only by a well-disposed London butcher named John Gould, who supplied them with “half a beef and two muttons every week”.

A few months later a victorious King Edward IV was back in London. Warwick the Kingmaker was dead and the fortunes of the House of York were restored. So the baby prince, born within a building that had hitherto provided shelter for murderers, robbers and other fugitives from justice, was now heir to the throne of England.

Two years later little Prince Edward had a brother. The new baby was called Richard and soon afterwards created Duke of York.

When Richard was still only four he was married with proper ceremony to three-year-old Anne Mowbray, daughter of the Duke of Norfolk. Richard’s brother Edward, then six, went to the wedding and afterwards all the guests sat down to a fine wedding feast.

Very little else is known about the short lives of Edward and Richard. The Prince of Wales, says one report, was forever talking about all the wars he would fight and win when he became king, but for a small boy in the 15th century that was normal behaviour.

It is in death, rather than in life, that Edward and Richard are most famed. For their deaths – alleged to have occurred only eleven weeks after their father died – have remained one of the great unsolved mysteries of our islands’ story – a mystery that has occupied the attention of scholars almost ceaselessly since the day it was discovered.

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In 1821 Brighton Pavilion was completed at a cost of £502,797 6s. 10d.

Posted in Architecture, Arts and Crafts, British Towns, Famous landmarks, Historical articles, History, Royalty on Saturday, 30 January 2016

This edited article about architecture originally appeared in Look and Learn issue number 439 published on 13 June 1970.

Brighton Pavilion, picture, image, illustration

General view of the Royal Pavilion in Brighton, East Sussex.

If a certain Doctor Richard Russell had not very fervently advised sea-water as a cure for many ills, George Prince of Wales, later King George the Fourth, would never have come to Brighton to try the cure for himself. Nor would he have ever dreamt of building for himself a small palace, or pavilion, of Eastern design down by the sea.

Brighton – or Brighthelmstone as it was then called – was a simple fishing town when the Prince of Wales arrived there on Sunday, September 7th, 1783. He was twenty-one years of age. He liked the place, and came to it again the following year when he rented a house.

The Prince was extravagant, and so vast had grown his debts that in 1786 he decided to close his London residence of Carlton House and go to Brighton to lead a simple, and healthy life.

This time he rented a house on that part of the town known as the Steyne, the rent being £150 a year. This house was to be changed and changed again until finally it became his dream home, the fantastic Royal Brighton Pavilion as we know it today.

When first he rented his “house” the Prince of Wales had secretly married a Mrs. Fitzherbert who lived in a house nearby. They were happy enough at first, but George Prince of Wales was a restless man, and forgetting his resolution of economy, he decided to rebuild the house as a “Marine Pavilion”. The actual owner of the house was one Thomas Kemp. Brighton’s Kemp Town of today is named after him.

The well-known architect, Henry Holland, was given the commission to design the new house on the old site. 150 workmen were employed, and in a remarkably short time a classically simple residence was built. The grounds were laid out by two pupils of that great landscape designer Lancelot – “Capability” – Brown. Everything was as it should be – no mad “new ideas” or revolutionary designs. Although one touch which forecast the growing romantic ideas of George, Prince of Wales, was that he had in his bedroom . . . a glass so situated as to afford the Prince an extensive view of the sea and the Steyne as he lay in bed.

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The best pictures from educational trade cards, 106

Posted in Ancient History, Architecture, Best pictures, Castles, Educational card, Famous landmarks, Historical articles, History, Literature, Magic, Music, Religion, Royalty, Travel on Thursday, 26 November 2015

We have selected three of the best pictures from our large collection of 19th and early 20th century educational trade cards.
The first picture shows Mozart and Schikaneder working on The Magic Flute.

Mozart, picture, image, illustration

Mozart and Schikaneder Work on The Magic Flute

The second picture shows the Merovingian Do-nothing Kings.

The Do-nothing Kings, picture, image, illustration

The Do-nothing Kings

The third picture shows the Statue of Osiris visiting the temple of Ipsambul.

Osiris, picture, image, illustration

Statue of Osiris visiting the temple of Ipsambul

High-resolution scans of all educational cards can be found in the Look and Learn picture library.

The best pictures from educational trade cards, 104

Posted in Ancient History, Architecture, Best pictures, Customs, Dance, Educational card, Famous landmarks, Historical articles, History, Music, Myth, Religion, Royalty on Thursday, 26 November 2015

We have selected three of the best pictures from our large collection of 19th and early 20th century educational trade cards.
The first picture shows the Muses on Mount Parnassus.

The Muses, picture, image, illustration

The Muses on Mount Parnassus

The second picture shows the outer gate of the enclosure containing the palaces in Peking.

Peking, picture, image, illustration

Outer gate of the enclosure containing the palaces in Peking

The third picture shows celebrating Ramadan in Turkey.

Ramadan, picture, image, illustration

Celebrating Ramadan, Turkey

High-resolution scans of all educational cards can be found in the Look and Learn picture library.

The best pictures from educational trade cards, 102

Posted in Best pictures, Disasters, Discoveries, Educational card, Exploration, Historical articles, History, Politics, Royalty, War, Weapons on Thursday, 26 November 2015

We have selected three of the best pictures from our large collection of 19th and early 20th century educational trade cards.
The first picture shows the suicide of King Zhou of Shang.

King Zhou, picture, image, illustration

The suicide of King Zhou of Shang

The second picture shows Captain Cook meeting with Maori chiefs in New Zealand, 1769.

Captain Cook, picture, image, illustration

Captain Cook meeting with Maori chiefs in New Zealand, 1769

The third picture shows the sacking of a town in the Middle Ages.

town, picture, image, illustration

Sacking of a town in the Middle Ages

High-resolution scans of all educational cards can be found in the Look and Learn picture library.

The best pictures from educational trade cards, 101

Posted in Africa, Ancient History, Archaeology, Architecture, Educational card, Famous landmarks, Heroes and Heroines, Historical articles, History, Legend, Music, Myth, Royalty, Sea, Ships, Travel on Thursday, 26 November 2015

We have selected three of the best pictures from our large collection of 19th and early 20th century educational trade cards.
The first picture shows Orpheus playing his lyre.

Orpheus, picture, image, illustration

Orpheus playing his lyre

The second picture shows Frederick the Great playing the flute.

Frederick the Great, picture, image, illustration

Frederick the Great of Prussia and a flute concert

The third picture shows tourists in Egypt.

Egypt, picture, image, illustration

The Pyramids viewed from the outskirts of Cairo

High-resolution scans of all educational cards can be found in the Look and Learn picture library.

The best pictures from educational trade cards, 100

Posted in Architecture, Art, Artist, Arts and Crafts, Best pictures, Castles, Disasters, Educational card, Exploration, Heroes and Heroines, Historical articles, History, London, Rivers, Royalty, Ships, War on Thursday, 26 November 2015

We have selected three of the best pictures from our large collection of 19th and early 20th century educational trade cards.
The first picture shows the Royal reception of Francis Drake on his return to London from South America in 1581.

Francis Drake, picture, image, illustration

The Reception of Francis Drake to London from South America in 1581

The second picture shows the burning of the Chinese fleet at Canton.

Canton, picture, image, illustration

Burning of the Chinese fleet at Canton

The third picture shows Philip the Good, Duke of Burgundy, meeting with artists.

Burgundy, picture, image, illustration

Philip the Good, Duke of Burgundy, meeting with artists, 1450

High-resolution scans of all educational cards can be found in the Look and Learn picture library.

The best pictures from educational trade cards, 98

Posted in Actors, Architecture, Best pictures, Educational card, English Literature, Famous battles, Historical articles, History, Invasions, Leisure, Literature, London, Politics, Religion, Royalty, Shakespeare, Theatre, War on Thursday, 26 November 2015

We have selected three of the best pictures from our large collection of 19th and early 20th century educational trade cards.
The first picture shows Shakespeare performing before Queen Elizabeth I in 1595.

Shakespeare, picture, image, illustration

Shakespeare performing before Queen Elizabeth I in 1595

The second picture shows Hernan Cortes, Spanish conquistador, receiving gifts from the Aztec Emperor Montezuma.

Hernan Cortes, picture, image, illustration

Hernan Cortes, Spanish conquistador, receiving gifts from the Aztec Emperor Montezuma, Mexico, 1518-1519

The third picture shows Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden attending an open air service before the Battle of Lutzen, Germany, 1632.

Lutzen, picture, image, illustration

Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden attends an open air service before the Battle of Lutzen, Germany, 1632

High-resolution scans of all educational cards can be found in the Look and Learn picture library.

The best pictures from educational trade cards, 92

Posted in Africa, Ancient History, Archaeology, Architecture, Art, Arts and Crafts, Best pictures, Boats, Educational card, Famous news stories, Heroes and Heroines, Historical articles, History, Politics, Royalty on Thursday, 26 November 2015

We have selected three of the best pictures from our large collection of 19th and early 20th century educational trade cards.
The first picture shows the Marble junk at the Summer Palace in Peking.

Peking, picture, image, illustration

Marble junk at the Summer Palace in Peking

The second picture shows Victor Schoelcher bringing news of their freedom to the slaves of Martinique, c.1848.

abolition, picture, image, illustration

Victor Schoelcher bringing news of their freedom to the slaves of Martinique, c1848

The third picture shows Pompeii and the Temple of the God Apollo.

temple, picture, image, illustration

The Temple of the God Apollo at Pompeii

High-resolution scans of all educational cards can be found in the Look and Learn picture library.